佛山市蜜蜂陶瓷有限公司-意大利蜜蜂瓷砖亚太区总部

陶瓷材料有哪些分类?新型陶瓷材料与传统陶瓷材料有哪些区别?

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作者:意大利蜜蜂瓷砖官方

陶瓷材料有哪些分类?新型陶瓷材料与传统陶瓷材料有哪些区别?

What are the classifications of ceramic materials? What are the differences between new ceramic materials and traditional ceramic materials?

陶瓷资料是由天然或组成化合物通过成形和高温烧结,制成的一种无机非金属资料,非金属资料之后人们所重视的无机非金属资料中最重要的资料之一。它兼有金属资料和高分子资料的一起长处,在不断改性的过程中,现已使其易碎性得到很大的改进。陶瓷资料以其优异的功用在资料范畴别出心裁,遭到人们的高度重视,在未来的社会开展中将发挥十分重要的效果。

Ceramic material is a kind of inorganic non-metallic material made of natural or constituent compounds by forming and sintering at high temperature. After the non-metallic data, people pay attention to one of the most important inorganic non-metallic data. It has the advantages of both metal and polymer materials. In the process of continuous modification, its fragility has been greatly improved. Ceramic materials have attracted great attention because of their unique functions in the field of information, and will play a very important role in the future social development.

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一、陶瓷资料有哪几类

I. What are the types of ceramic materials?

1、一般陶瓷资料

1. General Ceramic Materials

一般陶瓷资料选用天然质料组成,比方长石、粘土和石英,它们是典型的硅酸盐资料,通过烧结而成。一般的陶瓷资料来历丰厚、成本低、工艺老练,按功用特征和用处又可分为日用陶瓷、修建陶瓷、化工陶瓷等。

General ceramic materials are composed of natural materials, such as feldspar, clay and quartz. They are typical silicate materials, which are sintered. General ceramics materials are rich in origin, low in cost and sophisticated in technology. They can be divided into daily ceramics, construction ceramics and chemical ceramics according to their functional characteristics and uses.

2、特种陶瓷资料

2. Special Ceramic Materials

这种资料首要是选用高纯度人工组成的质料,用精密操控工艺成形烧结制成,具有某些特别的功用,以习惯各种需求,它的首要成分有氧化物陶瓷、氮化物陶瓷、金属陶瓷等。

This kind of material is mainly made of high purity artificial material, which is formed and sintered by precise manipulation process. It has some special functions and is used to various needs. Its main components are oxide ceramics, nitride ceramics, cermet, etc.

3、纳米陶瓷

3. Nano-ceramics

现在先进的陶瓷不管选用的质料仍是成材后的晶粒都归于微米,因而也称为微米陶瓷,当质料以及成材后的晶粒到达纳米标准时,将为陶瓷资料的制备科学、陶瓷学、陶瓷工艺带来骤变,然后开辟陶瓷资料更广泛的用处。

Nowadays, the grain size of advanced ceramics, regardless of the material chosen or the finished product, belongs to micron, so it is also called micron ceramics. When the material and the finished grain reach the nanometer standard, it will bring about a sudden change in the preparation science, ceramics and ceramic technology of ceramic materials, and then open up a wider use of ceramic materials.

二、新式陶瓷资料与传统陶瓷资料的差异

2. Differences between New Ceramic Materials and Traditional Ceramic Materials

归于新式资料的一种,传统陶瓷首要选用天然的岩石、矿藏、粘土等资料做质料。而新式陶瓷则选用人工组成的高纯度无机化合物为质料,在严格操控的条件下经成型、烧结和其他处理而制成具有微细结晶安排的无机资料。它具有一系列优胜的物理、化学和生物功用,其运用规模是传统陶瓷远远不能比较的,这类陶瓷又称为特种陶瓷或精密陶瓷。

As a new type of material, traditional ceramics mainly use natural rock, mineral deposits, clay and other materials as materials. The new ceramics are made of high purity inorganic compounds, which are manufactured by hand. They are processed by moulding, sintering and other processes under strict control to produce inorganic materials with fine crystallization arrangements. It has a series of excellent physical, chemical and biological functions. Its scale of application is far from comparable with traditional ceramics. This kind of ceramics is also called special ceramics or precision ceramics.

三、按化学成分区分

III. Distinguishing by Chemical Composition

首要分为两类:一类是纯氧化物陶瓷,如Al2O3、ZrO2、MgO、CaO、BeO、ThO2等;另一类对错氧化物系陶瓷,如碳化物、硼化物、氮化物和硅化物等。

There are two main types: pure oxide ceramics, such as Al2O3, ZrO 2, MgO, CaO, BeO, ThO, etc. and right-wrong oxide ceramics, such as carbides, borides, nitrides and silicides.

四、按功用与特征区分

IV. Distinguishing by Function and Characteristics

可分为:高温陶瓷、超硬质陶瓷、高韧陶瓷、半导体陶瓷。电解质陶瓷、磁性陶瓷、导电性陶瓷等。跟着成分、结构和工艺的不断改进,新式陶瓷层出不穷。

It can be divided into high temperature ceramics, superhard ceramics, high toughness ceramics and semiconductor ceramics. Electrolyte ceramics, magnetic ceramics, conductive ceramics, etc. With the continuous improvement of composition, structure and technology, new ceramics emerge in endlessly.

新式陶瓷资料在功用上有其共同的优胜性。在热和机械功用方面,有耐高温、隔热、高硬度、耐磨耗等;在电功用方面有绝缘性、压电性、半导体性、磁性等;在化学方面有催化、耐腐蚀、吸附等功用;在生物方面,具有必定生物相容功用,可作为生物结构资料等。但也有它的缺陷,如脆性。因而研讨开发新式功用陶瓷是资料科学中的一个重要范畴。

New ceramic materials have their common superiority in function. In terms of thermal and mechanical functions, it has high temperature resistance, heat insulation, high hardness and wear resistance; in terms of electrical function, it has insulation, piezoelectricity, semiconductor, magnetism, etc; in terms of chemistry, it has catalysis, corrosion resistance, adsorption and other functions; in terms of biology, it has certain biocompatibility function and can be used as biological structure data. But it also has its drawbacks, such as brittleness. Therefore, the research and development of new functional ceramics is an important category in information science.

近几十年来,陶瓷资料的运用及开展对错常敏捷的,陶瓷资料作为继金属资料、高分子资料后最有潜力的开展资料之一,它在各方面的归纳功用显着优于现在运用的金属资料和高分子资料。此外,有研讨发现在不同的载荷下,陶瓷的磨损率并不相同,在低载荷时气孔不会构成裂纹的扩展;而在高载荷的情况下,气孔变得不稳定,会在气孔处构成裂纹及扩展裂纹,导致制品磨损率极高,抗磨损骤变才能变弱。

In recent decades, the application and development of ceramics data are often right and wrong agile. Ceramics data, as one of the most potential development data after metal data and polymer data, is superior to metal data and polymer data in all aspects. In addition, it has been found that under different loads, the wear rate of ceramics is not the same. Under low loads, the pore will not form the crack propagation; under high loads, the pore becomes unstable, and will form cracks and propagation cracks at the pore, which will lead to high wear rate of products and weaken abrasion resistance.

陶瓷资料的运用远景仍是适当宽广的,尤其是动力、信息、空间技能和计算机技能的快速开展,愈加拉动了具有特别功用资料的运用。先进陶瓷资料的制备技能一日千里,国际科学技能的开展令人瞩目,纳米陶瓷资料的开展现已获得惊人的成果,有了重大突破。信任在不久的将来,陶瓷资料会有更好、更快的开展,展示出其重要的运用价值。

The prospect of using ceramics data is still appropriate and broad, especially the rapid development of power, information, space skills and computer skills, which has increasingly stimulated the use of materials with special functions. With the rapid development of advanced ceramic materials, the development of international scientific skills has attracted great attention. The development of nano-ceramic materials has achieved amazing results and made significant breakthroughs. It is believed that in the near future, ceramic materials will develop better and faster, demonstrating their important application value.

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