What are the classifications of ceramic materials? What are the differences between new ceramic materials and traditional ceramic materials?
Ceramic material is a kind of inorganic non-metallic material made of natural or constituent compounds by forming and sintering at high temperature. After the non-metallic data, people pay attention to one of the most important inorganic non-metallic data. It has the advantages of both metal and polymer materials. In the process of continuous modification, its fragility has been greatly improved. Ceramic materials have attracted great attention because of their unique functions in the field of information, and will play a very important role in the future social development.
I. What are the types of ceramic materials?
1. General Ceramic Materials
General ceramic materials are composed of natural materials, such as feldspar, clay and quartz. They are typical silicate materials, which are sintered. General ceramics materials are rich in origin, low in cost and sophisticated in technology. They can be divided into daily ceramics, construction ceramics and chemical ceramics according to their functional characteristics and uses.
2. Special Ceramic Materials
This kind of material is mainly made of high purity artificial material, which is formed and sintered by precise manipulation process. It has some special functions and is used to various needs. Its main components are oxide ceramics, nitride ceramics, cermet, etc.
Nowadays, the grain size of advanced ceramics, regardless of the material chosen or the finished product, belongs to micron, so it is also called micron ceramics. When the material and the finished grain reach the nanometer standard, it will bring about a sudden change in the preparation science, ceramics and ceramic technology of ceramic materials, and then open up a wider use of ceramic materials.
2. Differences between New Ceramic Materials and Traditional Ceramic Materials
As a new type of material, traditional ceramics mainly use natural rock, mineral deposits, clay and other materials as materials. The new ceramics are made of high purity inorganic compounds, which are manufactured by hand. They are processed by moulding, sintering and other processes under strict control to produce inorganic materials with fine crystallization arrangements. It has a series of excellent physical, chemical and biological functions. Its scale of application is far from comparable with traditional ceramics. This kind of ceramics is also called special ceramics or precision ceramics.
III. Distinguishing by Chemical Composition
There are two main types: pure oxide ceramics, such as Al2O3, ZrO 2, MgO, CaO, BeO, ThO, etc. and right-wrong oxide ceramics, such as carbides, borides, nitrides and silicides.
IV. Distinguishing by Function and Characteristics
It can be divided into high temperature ceramics, superhard ceramics, high toughness ceramics and semiconductor ceramics. Electrolyte ceramics, magnetic ceramics, conductive ceramics, etc. With the continuous improvement of composition, structure and technology, new ceramics emerge in endlessly.
New ceramic materials have their common superiority in function. In terms of thermal and mechanical functions, it has high temperature resistance, heat insulation, high hardness and wear resistance; in terms of electrical function, it has insulation, piezoelectricity, semiconductor, magnetism, etc; in terms of chemistry, it has catalysis, corrosion resistance, adsorption and other functions; in terms of biology, it has certain biocompatibility function and can be used as biological structure data. But it also has its drawbacks, such as brittleness. Therefore, the research and development of new functional ceramics is an important category in information science.
In recent decades, the application and development of ceramics data are often right and wrong agile. Ceramics data, as one of the most potential development data after metal data and polymer data, is superior to metal data and polymer data in all aspects. In addition, it has been found that under different loads, the wear rate of ceramics is not the same. Under low loads, the pore will not form the crack propagation; under high loads, the pore becomes unstable, and will form cracks and propagation cracks at the pore, which will lead to high wear rate of products and weaken abrasion resistance.
The prospect of using ceramics data is still appropriate and broad, especially the rapid development of power, information, space skills and computer skills, which has increasingly stimulated the use of materials with special functions. With the rapid development of advanced ceramic materials, the development of international scientific skills has attracted great attention. The development of nano-ceramic materials has achieved amazing results and made significant breakthroughs. It is believed that in the near future, ceramic materials will develop better and faster, demonstrating their important application value.